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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 



THE CAROB IN CALIFORNIA 



BY 

I. J. CONDIT 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE 
CAROB BEAN 



BY 
M. E. JAFFA AND F. W. ALBRO 



BULLETIN No. 309 

June, 1919 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS 

BERKELEY 

1919 



Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University. 

EXPEEIMENT STATION STAFF 

HEADS OF DIVISIONS 

Thomas Forsyth Hunt, Director. 
Edward J. Wickson, Horticulture (Emeritus). 

Herbert J. Webber, Director Citrus Experiment Station; Plant Breeding. 
Hubert E. Van Norman, Vice-Director; Dairy Management. 
William A. Setchell, Botany. 
Myer E. Jaffa, Nutrition. 
Charles W. Woodworth, Entomology. 
Ealph E. Smith, Plant Pathology. 
J. Eliot Coit, Citriculture. 
John W. Gilmore, Agronomy. 
Charles F. Shaw, Soil Technology. 

John W. Gregg, Landscape Gardening and Floriculture. 
Frederic T. Bioletti, Viticulture and Enology. 
Warren T. Clarke, Agricultural Extension. 
John S. Burd, Agricultural Chemistry. 
Charles B. Lipman, Soil Chemistry and Bacteriology. 
Clarence M. Haring, Veterinary Science and Bacteriology. 
Ernest B. Babcock, Genetics. 
Gordon H. True, Animal Husbandry. 
James T. Barrett, Plant Pathology. 
Fritz W. Woll, Animal Nutrition. 
Walter Mulford, Forestry. 
W. P. Kelley, Agricultural Chemistry. 
H. J. Quayle, Entomology. 
J. B. Davidson, Agricultural Engineering. 
Elwood Mead, Eural Institutions. 
H. ^. Eeed, Plant Physiology. 
James C. Whitten, Pomology. 
fFRANK Adams, Irrigation Investigations. 
C. L. Eoadhouse, Dairy Industry. 
Frederick L. Griffin, Agricultural Education. 
John E. Dougherty, Poultry Husbandry. 
S. S. Eogers, Olericulture. 
E. S. Vaile, Orchard Management. 
J. G. Moodey, Assistant to the Director. 
Mrs. D. L. Bunnell, Librarian. 

DIVISION OF CITEICULTUEE 

J. Eliot Coit I. J. Condit 

E. W. Hodgson 

DIVISION OF NUTEITION 

M. E. Jaffa JH. A. Mattill 

Mrs. H. I. Mattill Harold Goss 



t In military service. 

t In co-operation with office of Public Eoads and Eural Engineering, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 



THE CAROB IN CALIFORNIA 

By I. J. CONDIT 



The carob, commonly known as St. John's bread, is native to the 
eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. From there it was taken 
by the Greeks into Greece and Italy, and later by the Arabs into 
northern Africa and Spain. The Spaniards took it to Mexico and to 
South America and the English to South Africa, Australia, and India. 
Although carob trees are grown along the whole Mediterranean coast, 
the great carob-producing regions of the Old World are Sicily, Cyprus, 
Malta, the southern half of Sardinia, and the Adriatic coast of 
southern Italy. 

Probably the first introduction of the carob into the United States 
on any large scale was made from Spain in 1854 and from Palestine 
in 1859 by the United States Patent Office. According to the Report 
of the Patent Office for 1860, about 8000 plants were ready for dis- 
tribution at that time. These were sent mostly to the middle and 
southern states, but some may have reached California. 

About 1878 the California Agricultural Experiment Station propa- 
gated the plant and distributed seedlings during the next few years. 
According to Klee (1887), carob seeds were planted at Los Gatos in 
1873 and a few of the seedlings bore fruit in 1885. One tree at the 
Shinn Nursery, at Niles, raised from seed sown on the spot in March, 
1874, produced a few pods in 1884, only one tree out of several being 
a female tree. An excellent account of the history, methods of 
propagation, and uses of the carob is found in the report of the 
California Agricultural Experiment Station for 1884. The horticul- 
turist reported in 1890 that "no tree distributed by the stations is 
more likely to make a popular shade and ornamental tree for dry, 
rocky situations." He further stated in 1895 that the carob is "fairly 
well adapted to resist alkali and its thick, firm leaves have but few 
equals in point of enduring the hot sun." At the Chico Forestry 
Substation a group of ten carob trees receiving no irrigation at any 
time, had lived through several winters, but nine out of the ten were 
killed in the spring of 1896. 

In 1895 Dr. Franceschi of Santa Barbara stated that the carob had 
been much planted of late years and that there were several bearing 
trees in the neighborhood of Santa Barbara. 



432 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Cuttings and bud-sticks of the leading varieties of carob of the 
Old World have been imported by the Department of Agriculture 
since 1901 and distributed for trial. At the State Fruit Growers' 
Convention held at Fresno in 1912, Dr. Aaronsohn of Palestine called 
especial attention to the economic importance of the carob in other 
countries, stating that if we could observe what the people of his 
country do with the carob tree we would long ago have utilized this 
plant in California. C. W. Beers* until recently Horticultural Com- 
missioner of Santa Barbara County, has done much during the past 
few years to arouse interest in the carob and has distributed thousands 
of seeds to prospective planters. With his cooperation, the value of 
carob pods for calf feed was tested at the University Farm, Davis, 
the results having been published in Bulletin 271 of this station. 

BOTANY 

The carob belongs to the legume family and is the only species 
of the genus, Ceratcmia (from the Greek keronia, horn, in reference 
to the form of the pod). The specific name is siliqwa, meaning pod. 
The carob tree is a handsome evergreen, 40 to 50 feet high, with large 
compound leaves, each bearing from one to six pairs of thick, leathery 
leaflets. The leaflets are sometimes alternate, although usually oppo- 
site with or without an odd leaflet at the tip. 

The reddish or yellowish flowers are borne in lateral racemes, 1% 
to 4 inches long, proceeding from the larger and older branches year 
after year, and forming eventually warty excrescences in the bark. 
The flowers appear from October to December although the blooming 
season may extend much later. 

The majority of carob trees are dioecious, that is, have staminate 
or male flowers on one tree and pistillate or female flowers on a 
different tree. Occasionally trees are found which produce some 
perfect flowers in a cluster. In the staminate flowers the calyx-tube 
is disk-bearing, the segments of the disk being five in number and 
short. There are normally five stamens although six and seven are 
not uncommon. In the pistillate flowers the short, curved pistil pro- 
ceeds from the center of the disk, the tip being enlarged and somewhat 
lobed. The perfect flowers have both pistil and stamens on the same 
disk. 

The pistillate flowers after pollination develop into compressed, 
indehiscent pods, 4 to 10 inches long; these are thick and tough and 

* The writer wishes to express his appreciation of the cooperation of Mr. Beers 
in collecting data for this bulletin, and especially for notes concerning propagation. 



THE CAROB IN CALIFORNIA 



433 




Fig. 1. — Pistillate racemes, pod, and typical leaf of the carob. The carob tree 
is a handsome evergreen with glossy, green, pinnate leaves. It is of ornamental 
value and is sometimes planted as a street tree in California. The pods are from 
four to twelve inches long, reddish brown in color, and contain a sweet pulp in 
which the hard, flattened seeds are imbedded. They form an important source 
of food, both for man and beast in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. 



434 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 



filled with a sweet pulpy substance in which the flat, bony seeds are 
embedded. Before maturity the pods are astringent, due to the 
presence of tannin. The usual season for ripe pods is September 
and October, the pods remaining on v the tree for weeks later if not 
gathered. 




Fig. 



— Staminate racemes of the carob. The carob tree is most commonly 
dioecious. In order to insure a crop of pods, growers in some of the European 
countries make a practice of grafting a staminate shoot in each pistillate tree. 
The individual flowers are discoid and bear normally five stamens, although the 
number varies considerably. 



CLIMATIC AND SOIL REQUIREMENTS 

The successful growth of old carob trees in various parts of the 
state from Imperial and San Diego counties in the south to Napa and 
Butte counties in the north is good evidence of their ability to thrive 
here. Many of the plants distributed by this station succumbed to 
the frosts of 1888 at Duarte, Healdsburg, and Marysville, and later 
experience has shown that the trees when young are no hardier than 
orange trees. When once established, however, the carob is more 
frost-resistant than the orange.* It is reported to have been uninjured 



* Tlie seedling carob trees along the highway west of Pomona showed consider- 
able variation in frost resistance during the winter of 1918-19, some being killed 
entirely, others being uninjured. 



'THtf CAROB itf CALIFOKtflA 435 

at 18° F. at Santa Barbara. At Chico several varieties have survived 
temperatures of 18° to 22° F., while others have succumbed. 

The carob tree is comparable to the loquat which blossoms and 
sets its fruit in midwinter. While mature specimens of either species 
may pass through the winter without a leaf or twig being injured, the 
annual production of fruit in any but the more protected localities 
is uncertain. Even if the blossoms escape injury from cold and rain, 
the developing fruit is liable to be killed by frost later on. For this 
reason the successful production of carob pods in the interior valleys 
is practically limited to the citrus belts along the foothills. The carob 
tree thrives in regions of intense heat, such as the Imperial and 
Coachella valleys where the winters are mild. 

In southern Europe the carob is reported to thrive best in the 
vicinity of the sea. In California, however, it has been observed that 
trees near the coast do not fruit heavily, possibly due to the humidity 
factor. Although it is not, properly speaking, a native of arid regions, 
it is remarkably thrifty and productive in semi-arid countries such 
as Palestine. A well-drained soil is best suited to its development, 
but it has been found that young trees were not seriously affected by 
considerable soil moisture. While experience has shown that the carob 
will grow with less water than probably any common fruit tree, the 
olive not excepted, for best results it should be given a well-drained, 
moderately rich soil where some irrigation water may be provided. 

PROPAGATION 

Carob trees may be grown from cuttings, but as bottom heat and 
careful treatment are necessary, this method is seldom used. 

Seedlings. — The most successful propagators remove the seeds from 
the pods, mix them with coarse sand and keep them moist in a glass 
house, or enclose them between layers of sterilized sacking or burlap. 

The seeds which swell and show signs of growth are removed and 
planted in a propagating bed, composed of clay rolled and packed 
hard, upon which the seeds are placed and then covered lightly with 
sand and good soil to a depth of half an inch. 

When the seedlings show two sets of leaves they are transferred 
to 2!/2-inch pots containing clay soil, the transplants being allowed 
to stand twenty-four hours without water, after which they are, 
watered freely and kept in good thrifty growth. When about 5 or 6 
inches in height they are transferred to 1-gallon tins or to boxes 
6X^X8 inches with a good potting soil. When the plants are from 
3 to 5 feet in height they are ready for the orchard. By this method 



436 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 



a uniform growth is secured. It has been found that some seeds 
remain in the coarse sand for a year or more before starting. 

The experiments of Dr. H. B. Frost, at the Citrus Experiment 
Station, Riverside, indicate that seed planted very quickly after 
maturing, and before the pod has become dry and hard, germinated 
quickly, grew thriftily, and the seedlings showed no evidence of 
damping off. 




Fig. 3. — The propagation of the carob tree by budding is not an easy matter. 
Some budders, however, have had good success by placing spring buds in two-year- 
old seedlings grown in boxes. The buds grow rapidly when once started. 



Seedlings planted in nursery rows develop a tap root three or four 
times as long as the top. The deep tap root makes transplanting 
difficult although the root may be shortened and lateral roots 
encouraged by running a cutter at the proper depth under the plants 
in the row. The plants in boxes may be budded or grafted success- 
fully although the roots should not be allowed to become ''pot- 
bound.' Good success has been attained by planting the young 
seedlings in the field from paper pots, and budding them the second 
year when the stalk is about the size of a lead pencil. By this method 
the tap root is very little disturbed. 

Seedlings of the carob, like those of most fruit trees, are unsatis- 
factory on account of their variability both in habits of growth and 



THE CAROB IN CALIFORNIA 



437 



in production. Since the trees are mostly dioecious, a large percentage 
of the seedlings will prove to be unfruitful males. Furthermore, seed- 
lings are very slow coming into bearing and often the sex cannot be 
ascertained for several years. Budding or grafting, therefore, to a 
known good variety is advisable. 




Fig. 4. — Individual flowers of the carob. No. 1, staminate flowers from a tree 
at Santa Barbara ; No. 2, pistillate flowers from a different tree at Santa Barbara ; 
No. 3, perfect flowers from a tree on the University Campus, Berkeley. 



PLANTING 

Since the long tap root of the seedlings makes it difficult to trans- 
plant carob trees successfully from the nursery row, the plants are 
commonly grown in pots or boxes from which they are moved into 
their permanent location. The carob is an excellent street and road- 
side tree as the foliage keeps bright and clean, the twigs seldom harbor 
injurious scale insects, and the trees thrive with a minimum of care 
and attention. 

Since the carob bears the male and female flowers on different 
trees, it is necessary to have a few male trees in proximity to the 



438 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 



fruiting trees to provide for pollination which is effected both by wind 
and insects. A common practice in Europe is to bud or graft a 
staminate branch in each pistillate tree, thus insuring an abundance 
of pollen. In some cases a secondary male trunk or sprout is trained 
up into the center of the tree. The necessity of insuring sufficient 
pollen cannot be too strongly emphasized and it will probably be 
found well worth while to propagate desirable male trees for inter- 




Fig. 5. — Perfect flowers of the carob. The flowers of the carob tree are in 
racemes borne in profusion on the older branches. The outgrowth of the racemes 
from the same places on the branch year after year results in Avartlike excrescences 
which are especially conspicuous when the tree is not in bloom. The racemes 
shown in photograph bear both staminate and perfect flowers. 



planting with the female trees. Some carob trees growing in southern 
California seem to be self-pollinating, the flowers being perfect. The 
most productive ones are being propagated and such trees should not 
require other male plants for the production of pollen. 

Considerable success has been attained in Italy and other European 
countries by planting the carob on barren, unproductive hillsides. 
While it may be true that some otherwise unprofitable hillsides in 
California can be utilized by planting carob trees, we believe the value 
of the tree and its crop will justify the use of better land where it is 
available. Pasture or grain lands in the hills, or in the valleys where 



THE CAROB IN CALIFORNIA 439 

there is not too much frost, can be made to produce an abundant 
forage of carob pods if the trees are given good care and attention 
during the first few years. Even alkali lands may be utilized, although 
in the interior valleys such situations are almost always frosty. 

On hillsides the trees can best be set in terraces constructed on 
the contour. In good soil the trees grow to a large size and should be 
planted from 35 to 40 feet apart. Those who plant carob trees on wild 
unproductive lands must be prepared to fight gophers, which are 
fond of the roots, and squirrels, which will destroy the foliage and 
pods. 

YIELD 

As already stated seedling trees are slow coming into bearing. 
Buds placed in thrifty seedling trees should begin to produce three 
years after budding, although it will be six years before good crops 
may be expected. Various statements are made as to the productivity 
of the trees in other countries. According to Dr. Aaronsohn, a tree 
25 to 30 years old yields about 450 to 550 pounds of pods annually. 
Wild stocks, 15 or 18 years after grafting, have yielded 900 to 1100 
pounds in good years, although a good average is 450 pounds to the 
tree. Yields in the countries of southern Europe are variously 
reported from a few pounds up to 3000 pounds per tree. 

In southern California bearing carob trees are frequent but 
accurate figures on the amount of pods produced are difficult to obtain. 
The following list, however, gives yields of some of the seedling trees : 



Location 
Anaheim 


No. of trees 
1 


Age of tree, 
years 

20 to 25 


Yield per tree 
pounds 

400 


Anaheim 


5 


19 


20- 90 


Santa Fe Springs 


2 


18 


100-400 


Hollywood 
Pasadena 


1 

2 


18 
16 to 18 


150-400 
150-300 


Eialto 


1 


15 


200-400 


Los Angeles 


1 


30 


200 



Several of the trees listed above are neglected, crowded in among other 
shrubs, or heavily pruned. Some trees have produced eight or ten 
grain sacks each in a season, a sackful of pods weighing from 45 to 
50 pounds. 



VARIETIES 



As already stated, most of the leading varieties of carobs of 
southern Europe have been introduced for trial. Some of these are 
valuable for stock food but many are used for human consumption. 



440 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 



S. P. I. No. 7132* is described as being a poor yielder but the fruits 
are so full of sugar that drops of syrup run out when the pods are 
broken. No. 7461 is said to be one of the sweetest varieties known, 
being planted in Spain for table use especially, as it is too valuable 
for horse food. 

Among the numerous seedling trees which have already fruited 
in California, some have been selected as superior in fruiting qualities, 
size and shape of pod, and especially in the sugar content. Nursery- 




Fig. 6. — Seedling carobs are often grown in heavy paper pots until they are 
ready for setting in the nursery row or in the field. Seedlings may be set in the 
field in orchard form and budded to desirable varieties two or three years later. 



men and intending planters are selecting desirable mother trees from 
which to propagate, and a few varieties have been named. Whether 
the California seedlings are as good as the varieties selected in other 
countries remains to be determined later when trees of the latter come 
into bearing. 



* Referring to the numbers of the Division of Foreign Seed and Plant Intro- 
duction, Washington, D. C. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CAROB BEAN 

By M. E. JAFFA and F. W. ALBEO 



The Division of Nutrition has completed the analyses of a number 
of samples of carob beans, the results of which are presented herewith. 

COMPOSITION OF CAROB BEAN 

The carob bean consists of the pod and the seed, as indicated in 
Table I showing the results of the physical analyses of samples sub- 
mitted. The dry beans vary in weight from 6.7 to 23.7 grams. The 
seed also varies greatly, as is shown by the figures 0.2, 2.7 and 1.2 
grams for the minimum, maximum and average, respectively. The 
seed, on the average, represents 11 per cent of the entire weight of 
the bean, and the pods 89 per cent, the maximum and minimum figures 
respectively being 98 and 2. 

The percentage composition of the whole bean, pods and seeds, is 
shown in Table II. This table is divided into three parts, showing 
the analysis of pods and seeds ; of pods only, and of the seeds. Five 
separate analyses were made of the seed, the results indicated in 
part 3, the analyses of the corresponding pods being given in part 2. 
The composition of the pods and seeds, as detailed in part 1, was 
calculated from the analyses of the seeds and pods with the aid of the 
data in Table I. 

The seeds are very hard and tough and unless crushed and broken 
could not, therefore, be utilized by the animals. The pod, however, 
is different, and the analysis, therefore, of the pod alone would more 
nearly represent the actual feeding value than does the analysis of 
the entire bean, that is, the pods and the seeds. 

Furthermore, the percentage of the seeds in several varieties is 
extremely low, and in two instances (Nos. 2493, 2494), the lower 
percentage of seed is accompanied by the highest percentages of sugar. 

The percentage of protein in the seeds ranges from 19.7 as a 
maximum to 14.4 as a minimum, with an average of 16.5. If the seeds 
were readily broken this protein would be of considerable value, but 
when the pods are not treated or so treated that the seed is not crushed, 
little, if any, of this protein would be made available. It would 



442 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

appear, however, that the bean showing the highest percentage of 
protein in the seed corresponded to a pod comparatively low in sugar. 
On the other hand, it will be noticed that No. 2198 showing the highest 
percentage of protein in the seed, shows also next to the highest 
percentage of seed in the bean, namely, 17 per cent, so that the 
advisability of processing the pod so as to crush the seed is well 
indicated. Experimental data, however, are not at hand to show 
the availability of the nitrogen in the seed. 

The average percentage of ash, 3.18, is only about three-fourths 
of the corresponding figure for the ash of ordinary beans (seeds), 
while the percentage of ether extract, 2.5, is about the same as that 
noted for California beans. 

The crude fiber percentage averages 7.5, which is considerably 
higher than that indicated for the average bean. This relatively 
high percentage of crude fiber is due to a large proportion of hard 
"shell" covering the kernel. 

The nitrogen-free extract constitutes more than 50 per cent of the 
total weight of the seed, the average being 58.61 per cent. There is 
no starch in the seed and very little sugar, the latter, including the 
gums, amounting to less than 6 per cent, according to investigations 
carried on by the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Fifty per cent of the total weights of the seed, therefore, consists of 
carbohydrate matter, other than starch, sugars, and gums. Such 
compounds, while having a feeding value, do not possess the high 
nutritive value of sugar or starch. It would, therefore, appear that 
the availability of the nitrogen-free extract in the case of the carob 
seed is much lower than that in food materials containing a large 
amount of starch. 

In varieties of the carob bean where the seed constitutes but 2 per 
cent of the pod, the amount of available nutriment furnished by the 
seed would probably not amount to more than 1 per cent of the total 
weight of carob bean fed. It is not necessary to be so careful with 
such varieties in crushing the seed as it is where the percentage of 
seed amounts to 18 per cent of the total weight, as indicated in 
No. 2367, a variety grown by Mr. Beers, Santa Barbara. 

The water content of the samples analyzed varies greatly, from 
a minimum of 3.7 to a maximum of 24.7, this difference being 
accounted for by the condition of the samples, some being submitted 
to the laboratory in a much drier condition than others. 

The average ash content of the pods, 2.7 per cent, is not high, and 
does not differ materially from that of the grains and seeds, but rates 
much lower than do the pods of ordinary beans, which average 7.4 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CAROB BEAN 443 

per cent ash. The carob pod rates low in protein, as evidenced by 
the figures, 2.02 per cent, for the minimum, 7.18 for the maximum, 
with an average of 4.5 for sixteen varieties. This figure corresponds 
quite closely to the average, 4.3 per cent, for protein content of a 
number of samples of California bean pods. 

The amount of ether extract or fat varies greatly in the carob 
pods, the minimum percentage .22 is reported by the Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station. The minimum for California 
varieties examined is .71, while the maximum is 4.02. These two 
minima, and also the low percentage, 0.80, found in No. 2974, bring 
down the average to 2.4, which compares very favorably with the fat 
content of ordinary bean seeds but is twice that noted for the common 
bean pod. 

The carob pod owes its popularity and feeding value mainly to 
its content of sugar, which is present in both varying amounts and 
kinds. There are two sugars found in the carob pod, "invert'' or 
reducing sugar, and "sucrose" or can sugar. There does not 
appear from the data reported any rule concerning the proportions 
of these two sugars present. In some instances, as in No. 2201, 
we find 20.5 per cent of reducing sugars and only 7 per cent of 
cane sugar, while in the number preceding, No. 2200, the quantities 
are practically reversed, being 6.88 for reducing sugars and 21.7 for 
sucrose. These two samples, perhaps, represent the extremes. In 
the majority of samples examined cane sugar predominates, with a 
maximum of 43.6 per cent. The amount of reducing sugar for this 
variety is 8.4; in other words, there is present a total of 52 per cent 
sugar. Of the seventeen samples analyzed six show 40 per cent and 
upwards of sugar, five 30 per cent and upwards ; in other words, ten 
samples of the seventeen tested indicate over one-third of the total 
weight as available sugar. Three samples, Nos. 2201, 2371, and 2372, 
show a low percentage of sugar, the figures being 7.0, 8.9, and 7.5 
respectively. These materially lower the average, which is for the 
seventeen varieties 23.2 per cent. 

It will be seen from an inspection of the table that there are 
other carbohydrate compounds than sugar in the carob. The amount 
of such compounds varies from about 25 per cent as a minimum to 
upwards of 48 per cent as a maximum, averaging 36.3 per cent. The 
exact nature of these compounds is not known as no investigations 
have been carried on in this connection. Starch is present in the 
pods to the extent of about 1 per cent only, as indicated by the 
Connecticut investigation. Qualitative tests made on several samples 
in this laboratory apparently confirm the eastern finding. 



444 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 




Fig. 7. — 2198, carob bean from a perfect-flowered tree, Santa Barbara. An 
abundant bearer. Five-eighths natural size. 2199, carob bean from a very 
fruitful tree, Montecito. Five-eighths natural size. 2200, carob bean from 
Montecito. Five-eighths natural size. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CAROB BEAN 445 

The crude-fiber content, like that of other ingredients noted, is 
not constant for the different varieties even when reduced to a water- 
free basis. This is well indicated by the figures for the minimum, 
maximum, and average, which are 3.1, 15.3, and 8.8 per cent, respec- 
tively. As far as feeding purposes are concerned, that containing 
the least amount of crude fiber should be the most valuable, provided 
that the sugar content is also high. From the table it is seen that in 
this connection No. 2493 ranks the highest, with only 4.7 per cent 
of fiber and 53 per cent of sugar. In general it may be said that the 
highest fiber contents are associated with the lowest sugar percentage. 
This is shown by an examination of the figures recorded for Nos. 2371 
and 2372, where the crude fiber is 13.6 and 15.3, while the correspond- 
ing sugar percentages are 21.9 and 20.7. 

It has been stated that the carob bean contains tannin, which 
might render it undesirable as a feeding stuff for continued use. A 
careful examination made of a number of samples of the ripe carob 
pod fails, however, to justify such a statement. Only traces of tannin 
were found. 



THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CAROB BEAN 

The carob pods have been extensively used for a number of years 
in Europe as a feed for cattle and swine, also for horses, and to a 
limited extent, as a food for man. It is to be hoped that a larger 
use in this state will, in the near future, be made of this valuable 
feeding stuff. The most desirable form in which this could be utilized 
is that of a meal because in such a condition more nutriment will be 
rendered available to the animal from the seed than in any other way. 
The beans, however, as previously indicated, contain an appreciable 
percentage of gums which will clog the ordinary grinding machine. 
If, however, it were possible to break the beans and treat them with 
water, the treated product could be dried and then easily ground in 
the ordinary grinder. While such a process would require time and 
labor, it would in the end pay for such effort on account of the 
increased amount of nutriment rendered assimilable for the animal. 
It goes without saying that the water extract, rich in sugar, would 
not be thrown away, but used to moisten other roughage and thus 
render it more palatable and appetizing. 

If, however, it would not be deemed feasible to adopt the foregoing 
suggestion, then, in order to get the best results, it would be necessary 
to treat the beans as one would grain when it is to be "rolled." In 



446 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 



this way the pods would be broken and the seeds more or less crushed, 
thus enabling the digestive juices of the animal to better attack the 
seeds. The large amount of sugar which some of these varieties 
contain renders it a very valuable food for fattening and has been 




Pig. 8. — 2201, carob bean from Pasadena. Five-eighths natural size. 2202, 
earob beau from Duarte, very rich in sugar. Five-eighths natural size. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CAROB BEAN 447 

so used in Europe, according to Potts. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that in order to get the best results with carob beans the}^ should 
be fed with some material rich in protein, such as the oil cake meals, 
linseed, cocoanut, soy-bean, etc. 

In view of the fact that sugar is such an excellent source for energy 
in the animal body, particularly when work is concerned, it can be 
readily understood how valuable is this carob bean for horses doing 
heavy work. 

Any practical feeding of carob beans, when properly prepared, 
would take the place of some concentrate, such as grain, but with the 
exception of those varieties high in crude fiber, it should not be used 
to replace to any extent the roughage, for the reason that only about 
one-third of the samples examined show high crude fiber, the remain- 
ing low and varying in amount from that found in rolled barley to 
the quantity ordinarily recorded for bran. Just how much should 
be used would depend entirely upon local conditions, and the kind 
of animal being fed. For horses, as Pott states, as much as 6.6 pounds 
per day of carobs have been successfully used in connection with 
hay or other roughage. 

For the cow it would be necessary when using this as a substitute 
for part of the grain to add more of the protein concentrate, because 
the carob pod is low in protein as compared with any of the mill 
by-products which are used, and successfully so, in the ration of the 
cow. The carob pods may also be advantageously incorporated in 
the ration for swine, but it would be best for such animals to so treat 
the carob that the seed is more or less crushed ; the sugar in the carob 
lends itself admirably to the fattening of the animal. 

Even if the carob could be reduced easily to a meal, it would not 
be advisable to use any large amount in the mash for a laying hen, 
because too much sugar will eventually decrease egg production. For 
growing pullets, on the other hand, the case is different and much 
more could be used. 

Professor Woll at the University Farm at Davis, conducted a very 
successful experiment in feeding carob pods to calves ; the object was 
to compare the nutritive value of carob pods with barley, for skim- 
milk calves. The trial was continued for thirteen weeks. The two 
lots were fed as follows: 

Lot. 1. Carob pods and ground milo, 1 : 1 by weight. 
Lot. 2. Ground barley and ground milo fed in the same pro- 
portion. 



448 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA — EXPERIMENT STATION 

The calves received in addition to other foods, 0.4 of a ponnd per 
day of carob pods, while the control lot received, in addition to other 
foods, 0.35 of a pound ground barley. In other words, the .4 of a 
pound of carobs practically offset the .35 of a pound of ground barley. 
The average gains in body weight per day for Lot 1 were 1.81 lbs., 
for Lot 2, 1.7 lbs. The calves relished the pods greatly and, as a rule, 
ate them before the milo. The carob used in this experiment is 
represented by analysis No. 1704, Table II, part I. The foregoing 
emphasizes the nutritive value of the carob pod for growing calves. 

The carob pod has been successfully used in the fattening of 
steers, and if conveniences are at hand, it is preferable to cook them, 
although satisfactory results are obtained otherwise. 

Owing to the richness of the carob bean in sugar, it has been sug- 
gested that it could be utilized as human food. For such purposes 
those varieties should be selected which show the minimum amount 
of crude fiber because this ingredient is objectionable as far as human 
food is concerned. A sample of powdered carob pod prepared in 
New York City was submitted to the Nutrition Laboratory. Upon 
analysis the powder showed the following results : 

Table I 

Per cent 

Water 9.76 

Ash 3.24 

Protein 4.55 

Fat 3.85 

Fiber 7.12 

Invert 6.68 

Sucrose 34.65 

Nitrogen-free extract other than sugar 30.15 

100.00 

It is noticed that the total sugar percentage is upwards of 41, 
which is above the average for carob pods as recorded in Table II, 
part II. The fiber, however, is only slightly below the average for 
this ingredient. If this material were cooked with a cereal, sugar 
would not be required in addition thereto. Excellent use could be 
made of the powdered carob pod by those who need more roughage 
than that supplied by the ordinary diet. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CAROB BEAN 



449 



Table II. — Chemical Analysis of Carob Bean 



I. Pods and Seeds 



No. 


Water 
Per cent 


Ash 
Per cent 


Protein 
Per cent 


Ether 

Extract 

Per cent 


Sugars 
Reducing Sucrose 

Per cent Per cent 


Nitrogen- 
free 
Extract* 
Per cent 


Crude 
Fiber 

Per cent 


1704 


11.91 


1.67 


7.96 


1.00 


12.94 


13.96 


44.96 


5.60 


2198 


9.12 


3.46 


5.78 


2.57 


8.88 


16.93 


43.03 


10 . 23 


2199 


11.30 


1.95 


6.15 


3.82 


11.64 


8.77 


45.70 


10.67 


2200 


12.30 


2.63 


5.72 


2.68 


6.00 


18.88 


42.27 


9.52 


2201 


17.68 


2.38 


4.38 


2.79 


18.69 


6.39 


39.56 


8.13 


2202 


10.91 


2.63 


3.26 


2.76 


15.66 


24.66 


32.32 


7.80 


+ 

+ 


19.81 


2.61 


15.22 


1.37 


11.59 


24.51 


43.57 


17.42 


§ 


14.05 


3.26 


5.57 


.34 


3.25 


41.56t 


26.99 


4.98 


Minimum 


9.12 


1.67 


3.26 


1.00 


3.25 


6.39 


26.99 


4.98 


Maximum 


19.81 


3.46 


15.22 


3.82 


18.69 


41.56 


43.57 


17.42 


Average 


13.28 


2.57 


6.75 
II. 


2.17 
Pods 


11.08 


19.44 


39.80 


9.29 


2198 


8.93 


3.44 


3.33 


2.58 


10.44 


19.92 


40.80 


10.56 


2199 


11.04 


1.75 


4.47 


4.02 


13.70 


10.32 


43.48 


11.22 


2200 


12.27 


2.50 


3.77 


2.64 


6.88 


21.70 


40.28 


9.96 


2201 


18.08 


2.39 


3.33 


2.86 


20.54 


7.02 


37.54 


8.24 


2202 


11.14 


2.55 


2.02 


2.76 


17.40 


27.40 


28.96 


7.77 


2367 


7.95 


3.38 


4.12 


3.62 


16.00 


11.82 


42.38 


10.73 


2368 


16.00 


2.48 


4.47 


1.43 


14.44 


17.45 


35.31 


8.42 


2369 


5.60 


3.23 


2.64 


2.72 


8.72 


36.07 


31.38 


9.64 


2370 


8.04 


2.96 


6.65 


3.37 


18.92 


11.37 


37.14 


11.55 


2371 


5.70 


3.87 


3.40 


3.08 


13.04 


8.93 


48.36 


13.62 


2372 


3.70 


3.30 


7.00 


2.78 


13.20 


7.53 


47.18 


15.31 


2493 


8.21 


2.71 


7.18 


.71 


8.36 


43.62 


24.48 


4.73 


2494 


12.50 


2.28 


5.09 


2.08 


5.71 


37.88 


29.49 


4.97 


2727 


7.50 


2.41 


5.00 


2.13 


11.76 


30.89 


37.17 


3.14 


2974 


20.00 


1.93 


4.74 


.80 


5.37 


33.08 


28.08 


6.00 


2975 


24.70 
14.15 








3.00 
3.62 


28.23 
40.63t 








3.25 


4.81 


.22 


28.52 


4.80 


Minimum 


3.70 


1.75 


2.02 


.22 


3.00 


7.02 


24.48 


3.14 


Maximum 


24.70 


3.87 


7.18 


4.02 


20.54 


43.62 


48.36 


15.31 


Average 


11.50 


2.72 


4.50 


2.37 


11.24 


23.17 


36.30 


8.78 



* Nitrogen-free extract other than sugar. 
t Including dextrines. 
t Cal. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1903-04, p. 49. 
§ Conn. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1899, p. 177. 



450 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 



Table II. — (Continued) 
II. Pods, Calculated to Water-free Basis 



No. 


Ash 
Per cent 




Protein 
Per cent 


Ether 
Extract 

Per cent 


: 


Sugars 
Reducing Sucrose 

Per cent Per cent 


Nitrogen- 
free 
Extract* 
Per cent 


Crude 
Fiber 

Per cen? 


2198 


3.77 




3.66 




2.83 




11.46 


21.88 


44.80 


11.60 


2199 


1.96 




5.05 




4.51 




15.40 


11.60 


48.87 


12.61 


2200 


2.84 




4.32 




3.00 




7.84 


24.75 


45.90 


11.35 


2201 


2.91 




4.07 




3.48 




25.08 


8.57 


45.83 


10.06 


2202 


2.86 




2.27 




3.11 




19.58 


30.85 


32.59 


8.74 


2367 


3.67 




4.37 




3.93 




17.38 


12.95 


46.04 


11.66 


2368 


2.95 




5.32 




1.70 




17.19 


20.78 


42.04 


10.02 


2369 


3.42 




2.80 




2.88 




9.24 


38.20 


33.24 


10.22 


2370 


3.21 




7.23 




3.66 




20.62 


12.38 


40.43 


12.47 


2371 


4.10 




3.60 




3.26 




13.83 


9.46 


51.30 


14.45 


2372 


3.42 




7.27 




2.88 




13.71 


7.82 


49.00 


15.90 


2493 


2.96 




7.72 




.78 




9.12 


47.56 


26.69 


5.17 


2494 


2.60 




5.81 




2.37 




6.53 


43.30 


33.71 


5.68 


2727 


2.60 




5.40 




2.30 




12.72 


33.40 


40.18 


3.40 


2974 


2.41 




5.92 




1.00 




6.70 


41.35 


35.12 


7.50 


2975 


3.77 




5.60 




.26 




3.98 
4.20 


37.49 

47.32f 








33.25 


5.60 


Minimum 


1.96 




2.27 




.26 




3.98 


7.82 


26.69 


3.40 


Maximum 


4.10 




7.72 




4.51 




25.07 


47.56 


51.30 


15.90 


Average 


3.09 




5.03 




2.62 




12.61 


26.45 


40.56 


9.78 












III. 


Seeds 








No. 


Water 
Per cent 


Ash 
Per cent 


Protein 
Per cent 


Ether 
Extract 
Per cent 


Nitrogen-free 
Extract 
Per cent 


Crude 

Fiber 

Per cent 


2198 


10. 


20 




3 


60 


19 


.69 


2.51 


55.66 


8.34 


2199 


12.76 




3 


.08 


15 


.67 


2.68 


58.24 


7.57 


2200 


12. 


11 




3 


.49 


19.08 


3.06 


55.36 


6.90 


2201 


13. 


63 




2 


.32 


14.86 


2.13 


59.99 


7.07 


2202 


8.89 




3 


.36 


14 


.44 


2.78 


62.54 


7.99 


§ 


12. 


84 




3 


.27 


15 


.00 


1.83 


59.90 


7.16 


Minimum 


8. 


89 




2 


32 


14 


.44 


1.83 


55.66 


6.90 


Maximum 


13. 


63 




3 


60 


19 


.69 


3.06 


62.54 


8.34 


Average 


11. 


74 




3 


.18 


16 


.46 


2.50 


58.61 


7.50 



* Nitrogen-free extract other than sugar. 

t Including dextrines. 

§ Conn. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1899, p. 177. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CAROB BEAN 451 



PAETTAL BIBLIOGEAPHY OF THE CAEOB TEEE 

185-1 Browne, D. J. Carob seeds imported from Spain. Eeport of the United 
States Commissioner of Patents for 1854, p. xxvii. 

1859 Unger, F. The carob as a food. Eeport of the U. S. Commissioner of 
Patents for 1859, p. 332. 

1859 Volger, E. The carob in Spain. Ibid., p. 563. 

1859 Carob seeds from Palestine. Ibid., p. 19. 

1859 Parsons, S. B. The carob in southern Europe. Ibid., pp. 100, 118. 

1860 Clemson, T. G. Carob plants for distribution. Eeport of the U. S. Com- 

missioner of Patents for 1860, p. 32. 

1876 De Breuil, M. A. The carob tree. Culture des Arbres, pp. 653-656. 

1878 Dwindle, C. H. The carob. The Transactions of the California State 
Agricultural Society during the year 1877, p. 158. 

1881 Klee, W. G. The carob tree at Berkeley. The Third Eeport of the College 
of Agriculture, University of California, for 1880, p. 66. 

1883 Klee, W. G. The carob tree on dry, rocky hills. The Fourth Eeport of 
the College of Agriculture, University of California for 1882, p. 107. 

1883 Bernays, L. A. The carob. Cultural Industries for Queensland, pp. 25-27. 

1881 Klee, W. G. The carob. The Fifth Eeport of the College of Agriculture, 
University of California, pp. 100-102. 

1887 Klee, W. G. Eeports on the carob. Eeport of the College of Agriculture, 
University of California for 1885-86, pp. 108, 109. 

1891 Eeasoner, P. W. Condition of the carob in Florida in 1887. Bulletin I, 
Division of Pomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, pp. 87, 88. 

1891 Klee, W. G. Condition of the carob in California in 1887. Ibid., pp. 143, 
144. 

1891 Shinn, C. H. The carob in various parts of California. The Eleventh 
Eeport of the Work of the Agricultural Experiment Station, University 
of California for 1890, p. 230. 

1895 von Mueller, F. The carob. Select Extra-tropical Plants, p. 114. 

1895 Franceschi, F. The carob. Santa Barbara Exotic Flora, p. 31. 

1896 Shinn, C. H. The carob on alkali land. The Thirteenth Eeport of the 

Work of the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of California, 
for 1894-95, p. 419. 

1898 Shinn, C. H. The carob at the Substations. The Eeport of the Work of 

the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of California, for 1895- 
96, 1896-97, pp. 323, 409. 

1899 Win ton, A. L. Analysis, Twenty-third Annual Eeport of the Connecticut 

Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 177. 

1902 Gennadius, P. The carob tree. Circular printed at the Government Print- 
ing Office, Nicosia, Cyprus. 

1902 de Candolle, A. The history of the carob. Origin of Cultivated Plants, 
pp. 334-338. 



452 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

1904 Jaffa, M. E. Analysis of the earob bean. The Twenty-second Eeport of 
the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of California, for 1903- 
04, p. 49. 

1910 Aaronsohn, A. The carob in Palestine. Bulletin 180, Bureau of Plant 

Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, pp. 27, 28. 

1911 Morgan, H. H. Alcohol from the carob bean. Journal of Industrial and 

Engineering Chemistry, vol. 3, p. 139. 

1913 Aaronsohn, A. Possibilities of the carob. Monthly Bulletin, California 

State Commission of Horticulture, vol. 2, p. 438. 

1914 Kixford, G. P. The carob. The Standard Encyclopedia of Horticulture, 

vol. 2, pp. 717, 718. 

The carob. California Farm and Home, July 19, 1914. 
The carob in Santa Barbara County. California Cultivator, 
452. 

The carob tree in California. California Home and Farmer, 
October 15, 1916. 

1916 Beers, C. W. The carob. Monthly Bulletin, California State Commission 
of Horticulture, vol. 5, pp. 282-286. 

1916 Bobertson, W. H. A new Argentine Dye Material. U. S. Commerce 
Eeports, No. 276, Nov. 23, 1916, p. 731. 

1916 Battiato, F. The carob and its culture. II Carrubo Coltivato Razional- 
mente, Catania, pp. 1-103, fig. 1. 

1916 Woll, F. W., and Voorhies, E. C. Carob pods for calf feed. Bulletin 271, 
California Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 32-36. 

1919 Armstrong, J. S. The carob, a wonderful tree. Orchard and Farm, Feb., 
1919, p. 10. 



1914 


Beers, C. W. 


1914 


Beers, C. W. 




vol. 42, p 


1916 


Beers, C. W.